Master of Public Administration

National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration Logo

The 42-credit, N.A.S.P.A.A.-accredited Master of Public Administration prepares students for public service responsibilities, blending management theory with practical applications in government, health and non-profit organizations. Students from diverse backgrounds with varying levels of professional expertise, are taught by faculty members who are current in all aspects of this continuously evolving and growing field.

The program of study is flexible and can be tailored to accommodate the professional requirements of the student by offering specialization courses that provide them with the opportunity to examine a specific management function or an area of application in greater depth.

Areas of specialization include public administration, non-profit management, and social policy management. Other specializations can be developed in consultation with a faculty advisor from the broad spectrum of courses available through the Program and the School, as well as through courses available across the campus.

The program is divided into four parts:

  • Introductory sequence that provides 15 credits of public service sector foundations and skills
  • 9 credits of focused management topics including human resources
  • Budgeting and financial management
  • Law and accountability

Admissions Requirements

The standards for admission to the program and the advanced certificates are as follows:

  • Official transcripts as proof of a baccalaureate degree from an accredited institution of higher education
  • Two letters of recommendation
  • A current résumé
  • A two-to-three-page typewritten statement of purpose
  • A completed application submitted to the Office of Admissions

Note: Full matriculation admission requires an official transcript showing an undergraduate grade point average of at least 3.0 on a scale of 4.0. Limited matriculation may be available to applicants who do not meet full matriculation requirements. Candidates with grade point averages of 2.5 or less must contact the M.P.A. program director before submitting an application. Such limited matriculation may require additional evidence of competence. Limited matriculation students may register for a maximum of six credits per semester for the first 12 credits. Limited matriculation becomes full matriculation upon completion of 12 graduate credits with a 3.0 average or better. Transfer students are welcome; transfer credits will be evaluated by the program director.

Areas of Specialization

Please note there are several courses that can be taken for any specialization. These are: MPA 702 Managerial Communications in PA; MPA 787 (Independent Study); MPA 788, 789 or 790 (Internship – 6 credits maximum); PM 700* (Modern Management Issues; and PM 710* (Issues in Administration). In the cases of PM 700* and PM 710*, the content changes, so students should evaluate the content for its relevance to their area of specialization before enrolling. The faculty member teaching the course will clarify its content.

Internship placements have included:

Brooklyn Community services (AY 2021-2022)
Appolon Dental Group
East Village Dental Centre
The Veritas Healthcare Solutions LLC
Nicholas cosmetic Dental Center
Greater New York Hospital Association Summer Enrichment Program: Mount Sinai Health System
NYC Mayor's Office as a Special Project Graduate Intern in the Commission on Gender Equity
Administrative Intern: New York Family Dental Care
Purchasing Card (P-Card) Program Intern: New York City Department of Citywide Administrative Services

Public Administration (Government General Management)

PM 728. Managing Human Behavior in Public Organizations (PAD) (+ 3 Courses)
PM 700.* Modern Management Issues
PM 702. Managerial Communications in PA
PM 703. Fundamentals of Management Information Systems (same as GBA 517)
PM 706. Comparative Administration
PM 708. Labor Relations
PM 709. Administrative Law
PM 710.* Issues in Administration
PM 714. Policy Analysis & Program Evaluation
PM 715. Privatization and Contracting
PM 716. PA and Citizen Participation
PM 742. Grant/Proposal Preparation

Non-Profit Management (NPM)

PM 728. Managing Human Behavior in Public Organizations (+ 3 Courses)
PM 700.* Modern Management Issues
PM 702. Managerial Communications in PA
PM 703. Fund. Of Mgt Info Systems
PM 705. US Social Policy
PM 710.* Issues in Administration
PM 714. Policy Analysis &Program Evaluation
PM 715. Privatization and Contracting
PM 716. PA and Citizen Participation
PM 736. Quality Performance Mgt.
PM 737. Mission-based Marketing
PM 741. Fundraising
PM 742. Grant/Proposal Preparation

Social Policy Management (PAD)

PM 728. Managing Human Behavior in Public Organizations (+ 3 Courses)
PM 700.* Modern Management Issues
PM 702. Managerial Communications in PA
PM 705. US Social Policy
PM 709. Administrative Law
PM 710.* Issues in Administration
PM 714. Policy Analysis & Program Evaluation
PM 732. Public Health and Regulation
PM 736. Quality Performance Management
PM 737. Mission-Based Marketing

Program Sequence


Course # Course Name Credits
MPA 501
Principals of Administration 3.00
MPA 502 Organizational Theory and Behavior 3.00

MPA 503 Government and the Economy 3.00
MPA 505 Analytic Methods 3.00
MPA 507 Public Policy Processes 3.00


Course # Course Name Credits
MPA 602
Human Resources Management 3.00
MPA 603 Fundamentals of Public Budgeting & Finance 3.00

MPA 604 Administrative Responsibility and Accountability 3.00


Course # Course Name Credits
PM 728
Managing Human Behavior in Public Organizations 3.00


Course # Course Name Credits
MPA 798
Research Seminar in Public Administration 3.00

MPA 799 Research Project in Public Administration 3.00

Credit and GPA Requirements

Minimum Credits: 42
Minimum Major GPA: 3.00

*Please check University Bulletin for list of specialization and course requirements.
**To be taken in the last semester of study. You may NOT take any additional courses with capstone.


Course Descriptions

MPA 501 – PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION (Offered every Fall and Spring)  
An introduction to public administration, introducing the values, principles and foundation of public administration as a field of study. The course covers basic understanding and application of administrative concepts and political processes that govern the context of public, health and nonprofit organizations in a democratic society. Three credits.
MPA 502 – ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND BEHAVIOR (Offered every Fall and Spring) An examination of theories of organization, administrative processes, and formal and informal relationships in organizations. The course discusses the environment, leadership, structure, networks, and outputs and outcomes of organized action. Three credits.
MPA 503 – GOVERNMENT AND THE ECONOMY (Offered every Fall and Spring) An examination of the role of the public sector in economic decision making. The nature of public goods as they relate to allocation, stabilization, and distribution functions of economic systems is studied, as are the role of private investment, relations between government and private sectors, privatization of public services and the use of national income accounts. An analysis of fiscal federalism and the fiscal crises of the state are included. Three credits.
MPA 504 – TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY (Offered on occasion) -­‐‑ Critically examines the impacts of technological advances on society and organizations through systematic analysis of how technology not only influences administrative   practices, but also changes  our conceptual approach to management. Students are exposed to topics ranging from the debate on privacy and security to information security, e-­‐‑government, social media and cyber-­‐‑bullying, and the ethics of online personas. Three credits.
MPA 505 – ANALYTIC METHODS (Offered every Fall and Spring) – An introduction to the methods, tools and uses of research as it applies to policy and administrative problems. Includes a review and application of research design, data gathering and analytical concepts and techniques. Three credits.  
MPA 507 – PUBLIC POLICY PROCESSES (Offered every Fall and Spring) – An examination of the political system and the political, administrative and delivery processes that yield public services. Including agenda development, the role of special interests, policy formation, analysis, implementation, and evaluation. Three credits.
MPA 602 – HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (Offered every Fall and Spring) – An exploration of theories and practices of human resources management as they apply to the public and not-­‐‑for-­‐‑profit sectors. Includes a review of recruitment, civil service, training, performance evaluation, job development, compensation systems, teamwork, empowerment, unionism, equal employment opportunity, employee rights, privacy and occupational health and safety. Three credits.
MPA 603 – FUNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC BUDGETING AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT (Required PAD) (Offered every Fall) – An examination of public sector revenue generation, budgeting, accounting and auditing and their effects on managerial decisions. Includes a review of budget systems, processes and politics, and the preparation and justification of financial information and reports. Three credits.
MPA 604 – ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSIBILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY (Required PAD) (Offered every Fall) – A review of legal and ethical issues facing administrators as they seek to balance professionalism and responsiveness with the competing demands of diverse constituencies and the realities of their task environments. Three credits.
MPA 606 – LAW FOR MANAGERS (Offered on occasion) – An introduction to the basic skills and perspectives of the legal environments of the public, private, not-­‐‑for-­‐‑profit, and quasi-­‐‑public sectors. The objective of the course is student understanding of the legal obligations, responsibilities and liabilities facing managers in the three sectors. Important topics include basic provisions of the United States Constitution, the exercise of delegation and discretionary authority, rule-­‐‑making and regulatory processes and their economic impacts, contract, tort, employment, duties and liabilities of managers and professionals in health-­‐‑care organizations, environmental law and privacy. Three credits.
MPA 613 – FOUNDATIONS OF HEALTH SYSTEMS FINANCE (Required HAD) (Offered every Spring) – An examination of health-­‐‑care finance topics, including government and private health insurance, reimbursement, fees, service contracts, rate-­‐‑setting, DRGs, capitated payments, managed care and multiple entities. Includes a review of financial strategies and characteristics of various health organizations. Three credits.
MPA 614 -­‐‑ HEALTHCARE RESPONSIBILITIES AND ACCOUNTABILITY FOR ADMINISTRATORS (Required HAD) (Offered every Spring) -­‐‑ This course considers the ethical dilemmas that confront modern health service agencies and institutions in the exercise of administrative authority. Coursework includes analysis of the problems of accountability, rights, equity, ethics and the reconciliation of administrative processes with medial, constitutional, regulatory and social mandates encountered and utilized by government organizations in the administration of health systems and public affairs. Three credits.
MPA 616. LEGAL ASPECTS OF HEALTH (Offered on occasion) -­‐‑ An examination of legal issues in health-­‐‑care services, including governance; consents and patient rights; admission and discharge; malpractice and liability of hospitals, physicians, nurses, emergency crews; management duties and liabilities; medical records; immunity; medical staff rights and privileges; end of life decisions; moral and ethical dilemmas. Three credits.
MPA 624 -­‐‑ NONPROFIT MANAGEMENT (Offered on occasion) This course focuses on the formation, financing and management of not-­‐‑for-­‐‑profit organizations, including the board of directors, the workforce, marketing, financial management, fund raising, planning, leadership and the methods and strategies that have been used successfully to manage not-­‐‑ for-­‐‑profit organizations. The course also examines the role of not-­‐‑for-­‐‑profits in the delivery of public services through fee for service, contracts and reimbursement arrangements. Three credits.
MPA 626 -­‐‑ LEGAL, ETHICAL AND GOVERNANCE ISSUES IN NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (Offered on occasion) -­‐‑ This course examines the laws affecting the establishment and operation of nonprofit organizations, including incorporation and tax exempt status, general liability, regulatory compliance/reporting and contracts. The course explores the roles, responsibilities, liabilities and powers of directors, board members, trustees, officers, and employees of nonprofit organizations. In addition to the legal aspects, the nonprofit’s advocacy responsibilities and opportunities and ethical issues are examined and discussed in detail. Pre-­‐‑requisite MPA 624. Three credits.
MPA 787 – INDEPENDENT STUDY – Students taking independent study are expected to research an aspect or phase of a problem under the supervision of a faculty adviser. The product of study is an evaluative report containing a thorough literature review and student assessment of the significance and impact of the substantive issue. With permission of director and dean. Three credits.
MPA 788 (Fall); MPA 789 (Spring); MPA 790 (Summer) – GRADUATE INTERNSHIP – An opportunity for supervised work in a public, health, or nonprofit agency based on a plan approved by the faculty advisor and host agency supervisor. The product is a substantial research paper or management analysis of the host agency and the student’s performance in it. Recommended for students lacking substantive experience in relevant organizations. Three credits.
MPA 798 – CAPSTONE SEMINAR (Offered every Fall and Spring) – An integrative seminar using a team approach. Students develop a framework and design for systematic analysis of a subject in their area of concentration. The framework includes problem background and environmental analysis, as well as an action plan for data collection and analysis. This course cannot be taken with any other course. Must be taken in the student’s last term, after having completed 36 credits. Three credits.
MPA 799 – CAPSTONE PROJECT (Offered every Fall and Spring) – Students carry out the plan proposed in MPA 798 using a combination of data collection methods and analytic techniques. Teams prepare and present a report of their analysis and results. This course cannot be taken with any other course. Must be taken in the student’s last term, after having completed 36 credits. Three credits.
PM 700 – MODERN MANAGEMENT ISSUES (Offered on occasion) – An examination of current management strategies in the context of their genesis, antecedents, strengths and weaknesses, methods of application in public, health and not-­‐‑for-­‐‑profit settings, and comparisons with other management strategies. Three credits.
PM 702 -­‐‑ MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION IN P. A. (Offered every Spring) – This course examines managerial communications through multiple theoretical lenses while also providing emotional intelligence as a practical vehicle for skill development. Traditionally, organizational members have relied on written memos, reports, documents, and meetings of various kinds to disseminate information. Proficiency in these forms of communication have often reflected an individual’s knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs). More recently, however, public and private organizations have acknowledged that Emotional Intelligence Competencies (EIC) are critical to organizational success. Three credits.
PM 705 -­‐‑ U. S. SOCIAL POLICY (Offered every other Fall) – An analysis of government health and welfare policies affecting an individual’s income level and life opportunities, including an analysis of policy formation, implementation, and impact on social problems. Three credits.
PM 706 – COMPARATIVE ADMINISTRATION (Offered every other Fall) – The class is designed to provide an introduction to the field of comparative public administration. The class will examine the varying approaches to bureaucracy, administrative structure, policy formulation and implementation in the light of variations in social, cultural, and political contexts. This will include an overview of basic theories of bureaucracy and how they function and theoretical approaches to comparative analyses of performance based on changing variables. The course will also touch upon understanding variations in efforts for administrative reform. The impact of government structure on diverse constituencies will be examined to better understand the effectiveness of varying approaches to public management and organizational development. Three credits.
PM 708 – LABOR RELATIONS (Offered every Fall) – A study of the interaction of the labor movement and management in the public and not-­‐‑for-­‐‑profit sectors. Collective bargaining impacts on policy and budget are examined. Strategies and public opinion are considered. Three credits.
PM 709 – ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (Offered every Fall) –A look at public law concepts that affect public and not-­‐‑for-­‐‑profit sector managers; legislative delegation of power, administrative investigation, rulemaking, the relationship between citizens and the states, adjudication, judicial review of administrative action. Three credits.
PM 710 – ISSUES IN ADMINISTRATION (Offered on occasion) – An examination of selected themes, current developments and emerging issues in the study of administration. Topics vary. Three credits.
PM 714 – POLICY ANALYSIS AND PROGRAM EVALUATION (Offered every Summer) Policy analysis and program evaluation are more steps in a process than separate endeavors. Policies are chosen on the basis of forecasts of needs and expected results, then selected policies are implemented. Implementation then is evaluated to determined actual effects, and these results are used to adjust policy goals and implementation (processes ranging from regulations to programs) to better achieve desired results and ensure accountability. Policy processes are iterative and interactive. This course provides students with basic understanding of needs assessment, policy analysis and program evaluation, as well as practice in applying tools used in each type of analysis, or applicable to all of them.
Through use of text material, cases and both quantitative and qualitative assignments, students will hone their knowledge of policy processes and limitations, and develop assessment skills. Three credits.
PM 715 – PRIVATIZATION AND THE CONTRACTING OUT OF PUBLIC SERVICES (Offered every other Fall)– Governments, through elected officials, make decisions concerning which services should be provided by the public and the private sectors. This course provides students with both the economic and social basis for making judgments about the potential effectiveness of privatizing services in different policy areas, such as education and health care. The course provides general guidelines as to the nature of the services that are most appropriately provided by the private sector. When the public sector is determined to be the appropriate provider of a service, then government must determine whether to provide these services itself or contract-­‐‑out for the service. The course also examines the principles and practices in the government contracting-­‐‑out process – the decision whether to contract-­‐‑out a government service, the preparation of the Request For Proposals, the evaluation of the submitted proposals for the selection of the contractor, the preparation of the contract document and the monitoring of the selected contractors. Understanding the issues of privatization and the contracting-­‐‑out of public services enables students to be more effective managers and responsive to citizens. Three credits.
PM 716 – PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND CITIZEN PARTICIPATION (Offered every other Spring) – This course will explore public participation in association with public administration processes in a time of concurrent criticism, pressure, and apathy directed towards existing institutions. The engagement of citizens in public administration will be examined as a potential challenge and support for public management. Different forms and degrees of participation will be looked at in case studies included in our texts. Students will be encouraged to relate course topics to everyday life and work experience. Three credits.
PM 728 -­‐‑ MANAGING HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS (Required for PAD) (Offered Fall and Spring Semester) -­‐‑ The course examines the range of issues concerning managing people in the workplace. It reviews current theories and the latest research concerning human relations in organizations. Students gain an understanding of the “people skills” necessary to be successful in the world of work.  The course explains the major theories of workplace human relations and behavior and the application of psychology to management in the public sector. The prominent focus is on understanding the self and others; role of perception and personality; leadership versus management; effective group/team collaborations; the need for flexibility and adaptation to change. Additionally, the course will highlight interviewing strategies, self-­‐‑marketing, oral presentations, and finding ways to enhance personal strengths and minimize weaknesses. Three credits.
PM 730 – HEALTH, DISEASE AND MEDICAL CARE (Required for HAD) (Offered every Fall and Spring) – An overview of the political, economic, social and epidemiological characteristics of health and medical care. The forms of health services financing, organization and delivery systems in the United States and other industrialized nations, processes of health and disease in individuals and societies, and the moral and ethical issues facing health-­‐‑care decision makers are examined. Three credits.
PM 731 – MANAGED HEALTH-­‐‑CARE SYSTEMS (Offered every other Fall) – An examination of the various forms of managed health-­‐‑care plan and organizations that addresses the financing, organization and delivery aspects of each form from a management perspective. The purpose is to provide students with a knowledge base from which to develop and implement effective management processes for managed care services. Among the topics covered are the legal and regulatory environment, public opinion, product development and marketing, pricing and delivery strategies, reimbursement methods, utilization review, quality assurance and control, management information systems, Medicare and Medicaid, and trends. Three credits.
PM 732 – PUBLIC HEALTH AND REGULATION (Offered every other Spring) -­‐‑ An analysis of the role of government in the health field, including concepts and practices in health policy and regulation, especially the implementation of regulatory policy as it effects health providers. Three credits.
PM 733 – ECONOMICS OF HEALTH (Offered every other Spring) -­‐‑ An examination of health care delivery as an economic activity. Focus is on determination of demand for health care and supply of services available. Consideration of various methods for achieving equilibrium in health care and government’s role via licensure, regulation, financing, and planning. Three credits.
PM 736 – QUALITY PERFORMANCE (Offered every other Spring) – The course includes a study of external methods of quality review, internal methods of assessing quality (process and outcomes measurement and monitoring criteria), strategies for developing the quality infrastructure and integrating it into a quality management program, the use of management information systems in quality, and the balancing of quality and costs. Three credits.
PM 737 – MISSION-­‐‑BASED MARKETING (Offered on occasion) – An examination of planning and marketing in health-­‐‑care, human services and nonprofit organizations, including market research and forecasting, application of research information and planning principles, translation of goals into action priorities, development of action plans, and evaluation of results. Three credits.
PM 738 – GERONTOLOGY: THE PROCESS OF AGING (Offered every Fall) – The course examines the multidisciplinary field of gerontology and provides students with an overview of the current “state-­‐‑of-­‐‑the-­‐‑art” and the critical issues and controversies that confront individuals as they grow older. The course examines the theories, processes and consequences of aging from both the individual and societal perspectives. A range of issues are presented including: physical, social, psychological, health, family, race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, retirement, economics, social work and social policy. Comparisons among African American, White, Hispanic, Asian, and Native Americans are offered especially in view of unequal treatment and multiple disparities among minorities.  Three credits.
PM 739 – LONG-­‐‑TERM CARE ADMINISTRATION (Offered every Spring) – This course examines the special administrative and organizational methods, social systems and population that are attributable to all kinds of residential and long term care facilities, as
separate entities from acute care hospitals. It includes an overview of the long term care continuum, including community care, management issues, Medicare and Medicaid, finance, pertinent laws and regulations, and patient/resident requirements and needs. Care and treatment standards will be reviewed and discussed, as well as policy changes and government trends associated with the new paradigm of aging in the 21st Century. Pre-­‐‑ requisite PM 738. Three credits.
PM 741 – FUNDRAISING (Offered every Fall) – An examination of revenue strategies for not-­‐‑for-­‐‑profit organization fund-­‐‑raising, including membership, donations, programs, foundations and government agencies. The focus is on which strategies work for what organizations, how to identify organizational needs and appropriate funding sources, and how to successfully petition funding support. Three credits.
PM 742 – GRANT/PROPOSAL PREPARATION (Offered every Spring) – An introduction to the process of developing and writing a proposal for project funding and an examination of key management techniques and decision tools needed to coordinate successfully the process of proposal development and implementation within an organization. Three credits.
PM 743 – AGING POLICY IN THE COMMUNITY (Offered every Spring) – The course examines the options including social supports, health care, housing and recreation that older community dwelling residents have. Psychology, personality, gender, personal history, gentrification, residential segregation and policy issues including economics are presented. Additionally, data pertaining to the aforementioned items are examined. Pre-­‐‑ requisite  
PM 738. Three credits.
PM 744 -­‐‑ BEREAVEMENT: PSYCHOLOGICAL, CULTURAL AND INSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVES (Offered every Summer) -­‐‑ This course is designed to explore the stages and issues related to dying and grieving. Cultural diversities in the grieving process will be identified. Myths and ideas that inhibit, isolate and interfere with the bereavement experience will be examined. Political, medical, legal and ethical issues will be analyzed. Students’ values, attitudes and fears will be explored in order to inform their interventions. Social, cultural and personal issues that govern a person’s reaction to death and dying will be highlighted. In addition, students will learn to design organizational structures for interdisciplinary assessments and service delivery in settings serving the dying and bereaved.  Three credits.
PM 745 -­‐‑ HEALTH AND RETIREMENT PLANNING IN ELDER CARE (Offered every Spring) -­‐‑ The course addresses critical issues affecting health and retirement among older adults, and the relationship between gerontology and legal estate planning issues at the core of our discussions. This course examines estate, disability and retirement planning tools used by elder law attorneys with analyses of laws, regulations and programs upon which planning is based. Topics include advanced directive, power of attorney, long-­‐‑term care and Medicaid, long term care insurance, and planning for asset distribution on death. Three credits.
PM 747 -­‐‑ NUTRITION POLICY ACROSS THE LIFECYCLE (Offered every Summer) – The purpose of this course is to examines the relationships among food, nutrition and health for adults in the context of public policy formation and implementation at federal, state and local government levels. Of particular interest in this examination are intended and unintended consequences for individuals of public policies on food availability, prices, consumption and health. The course reviews major areas of food and nutrition policy at various levels of government as well as social and political forces that result in particular policies and in major changes in policy, for example recent revisions in the food pyramid. Three credits.
PM 750: HOUSING POLICIES, MINORITIES & SOCIAL EQUITY (Offered on occasion) -­‐‑ Critically examines the effects of national housing policies on minorities from a historical perspective, explaining the existing housing conditions facing minorities across the nation. Three credits.
PM 751: DIVERSITY AND CULTURAL COMPETENCE IN THE WORKPLACE (Offered on occasion) -­‐‑ An examination of managing cultural competence and the impact of diversity, culture, and ethnic origin in public sector workplaces along several dimensions including race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual preference, and physical ability. Three credits
PM 755: U.S. EDUCATIONAL POLICY & REFORM (Offered on occasion) -­‐‑ Explores the complex sociopolitical and socioeconomic webs surrounding educational policy in the U.S. This course will deeply examine multiple themes pertaining to educational policy and education reforms. Three Credits.


LIU Brooklyn's Master of Public Administration programs are accredited by the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (N.A.S.P.A.A.), a membership organization of public administration, public policy, and public affairs programs. One of N.A.S.P.A.A.'s missions is to ensure excellence in the education and training for public service, which its Commission on Peer Review and Accreditation works to accomplish.

The accreditation process:

  • Demonstrates the program has undergone a rigorous mission- and outcomes-based process 
  • Verifies the program has made a long-term commitment to providing the best in public service education
  • Validates that the degree meets the standards of the public service education field, ensuring a foundation for future success

Accredited through 2023.

NASPAA Diversity and Inclusion


Dr. Christopher Adams

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